GRODZINSKI, ḤAYYIM OZER

GRODZINSKI, ḤAYYIM OZER
GRODZINSKI, ḤAYYIM OZER (1863–1940), talmudic scholar and one of the spiritual leaders of Lithuanian Orthodox Jewry, son of the talmudic scholar, Solomon David Grodzinski (1831–c. 1908). Grodzinski studied in the yeshivot of Eisheshok and Volozhin, where he was known as an illui (prodigy). In 1887 he was appointed one of the dayyanim of the bet din of Vilna, and he came to be regarded as its leading dayyan. Grodzinski was one of the initiators of the Vilna Conference of 1909, which resulted in the formation of the Orthodox Keneset Israel organization. He also participated in the founding conference of the Agudat Israel at Katowice in 1914, served as a leading member of that party's Council of Sages, and was the prime force for spreading its influence in and around Vilna. An initiator of the conference of rabbis at Grodno in 1924 which founded the Va'ad ha-Yeshivot ("Council of the Yeshivot") for the spiritual and material support of yeshivot and their students, he was the moving spirit behind the Council. Grodzinski was a vehement opponent of Zionism and of secular education for Jews, his aim being to preserve the Torah milieu of the Lithuanian yeshivot and townlets intact. In 1934 he prevented the transfer of the Hildesheimer rabbinical seminary from Berlin to Tel Aviv. Asked by an Agudat Israel kibbutz whether it was permitted to settle on Jewish National Fund land, he advised its members "Let him who is firm in spirit stay steadfast in his place and not hurry to join the swelling stream… until God has mercy on His people and hastens his redemption." In 1929, when Isaac Rubinstein was chosen as chief rabbi of Vilna, Grodzinski's supporters sparked a violent controversy in the community. Grodzinski's responsa were published in three volumes under the title of Aḥi'ezer (1922, 1925, 1939). In the introduction to the last volume, written on the eve of the Holocaust, he spoke of the fear and dismay that was rapidly descending upon the entire Jewish people, both in the Diaspora and (in a reference to the 1936–39 riots) in Ereẓ Israel. He wrote about the spiritual disintegration of the Jewish community, and its laxity in the observance of the Sabbath, kashrut, and the laws of marital purity. All this he blamed on the Reform movement in the West and on secular education in the East. His sole consolation was in "the important work of preserving and strengthening Torah education" and in the fact that "the large and small yeshivot were the strongholds of Judaism… in Poland and Lithuania." -BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Rothstein, Ahi'ezer (19462); O.Z. Rand (ed.), Toledot Anshei Shem (1950), 21–22; O. Feuchtwanger, Righteous   Lives (1965), 17–22; J.L. Kagan and H.B. Perlman, in: L. Jung (ed.), Jewish Leaders (1953), 433–56; A. Rothkoff, in: Jewish Life (May–June 1967). (Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Grodzinski, Hayyim Ozer — (1863 1940)    Lithuanian talmudic scholar. In 1887 he was appointed one of the dayyanim of the bet din of Vilna. He was one of the initiators of the Vilna Conference of 1909, which resulted in the formation of the Orthodox Keneset Israel… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • WOMAN — This article is arranged according to the following outline: the historical perspective biblical period marriage and children women in household life economic roles educational and managerial roles religious roles women outside the household… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • AḤARONIM — (Heb. אַחֲרוֹנִים; lit. the later (authorities), a term used to designate the later rabbinic authorities, in contrast to the rishonim , the earlier authorities. Although scholars differ as to the exact chronological dividing line between the two …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • RESPONSA — (Heb. שְׁאֵלוֹת וּתְשׁוּבוֹת; lit. queries and replies ), a rabbinic term denoting an exchange of letters in which one party consults another on a halakhic matter. Such responsa   are already mentioned in the Talmud, which tells of an inquiry… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • EDUCATION, JEWISH — This entry is arranged according to the following outline. Bibliography at the end of a section is indicated by (†). in the biblical period the nature of the sources historical survey the patriarchal period and the settlement the kingdom the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • LITHUANIA — (Lithuanian Lietuva; Pol. Litwa; Rus. Litva; Heb. Lita ליטא or ליטה; Yid. Lite ליטע), southernmost of Baltic states of N.E. Europe; from 1940 Lithuanian S.S.R. (for early period, see poland lithuania ). (See Map: Lithuanian Communities). For the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • RABINOWITZ-TEOMIM, ELIJAH DAVID BEN BENJAMIN — (ADeReT; 1842/43–1905), Ashkenazi chief rabbi of Jerusalem. Elijah David was born in Pikeln, Lithuania. His father Benjamin Rabinowitz, who was rabbi of Zamosc and later of Wilkomierz, was called Benjamin the righteous because of his great piety; …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • WASSERMAN, ELHANAN BUNIM — (1875–1941), Lithuanian talmudic scholar, yeshivah head, and communal leader. Wasserman received his education at the yeshivot of Volozhin and Telz, which were headed at the time by eliezer gordon and Simeon shkop , respectively. In 1899 he… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • LUBETZKY, JUDAH — (1850–1910), French rabbi. Lubetzky was born in Russia. He went to Paris in 1880 and was appointed rabbi of the Eastern European Jews there the following year and a member of the Paris bet din in 1904. He published his edition of parts of the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • FINKEL, ELIEZER JUDAH — (1879–1965), Lithuanian rosh yeshivah. Finkel received his early education from his father nathan zevi finkel , known as the Sabba ( grand old man ) of Slobodka. He continued his studies at some of the famous Lithuanian yeshivot, including… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”